Prevalencia y sintomatología del estrés post traumático en personas que experimentan un terremoto y un tsunami.

Palabras clave: Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático, Prevalencia, Terremotos, Tsunamis, Post-Traumatic Stress, Prevalence, Earthquakes,

Resumen

Introducción : Se sabe que la prevalencia del estrés post-traumático (TEPT) es significativamente mayor después de terremotos y tsunamis como el del 27 de febrero de 2010 (27-F). Objetivos: (1) Determinar las proporciones de personas que podrían presentar TEPT y cada uno de sus tipos de síntomas, (2) relacionar las proporciones con grupos de variables que pueden favorecer su aparición, y (3) establecer un perfil de síntomas según cada grupo de variables. Método: Mediante las escalas Short Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview (SPRINT-E) y la Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), medimos la cantidad de síntomas intensos de TEPT en dos muestras: habitantes del litoral (n=194) y del interior (n=94) de la zona central de Chile. Resultados: La prevalencia del TEPT alcanza el 22%, siendo 19 puntos mayor en personas que habitan la zona costera (28%) y 11 puntos mayor entre quienes han sufrido graves daños en su vivienda. Discusión: Quienes sufren graves daños o viven en una ciudad costera impactada por terremoto y tsunami tienden a tener más síntomas de re-experimentación e híper-activación, se muestran más tristes, tienen menos cuidado por su salud, se sienten incómodos e interferidos en sus actividades cotidianas y se les hace difícil resolver problemas que antes solucionaban sin ayuda. Introduction : Previous research indicates an increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after earthquakes and tsunamis as the February 27, 2010 (F-27). Objectives: (1) To determine the proportions of people who could present PTSD and each of its types of symptoms, (2) relate the proportions with groups of variables that may favor its appearance, and (3) establish a symptom profile as each group of variables. Method : Using the Short Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Rating Interview (SPRINT-E) and the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), we measured the PTSD intense symptoms in two samples: inhabitants of coast (n=194) and interior (n=94). Results: The PTSD prevalence was 22%, 19 points higher in people that live in coastal area (28%) and 11 points higher among people that suffered severe damage in their home. Discussion : Those who suffer serious house damages or live in a coastal town hit by earthquake and tsunami tend to have more symptoms of re-experiencing, hyper-activation, are sadder, have less care for their health, feel uncomfortable and interfered in their daily activities and they find difficult to solve problems that previously solved without help.

Biografía del autor

Marcelo Leiva Bianchi, Universidad de Talca.
Facultad de Psicología.
Andrea Araneda, Universidad de Talca.
Facultad de Psicología.

Citas

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Publicado
2016-11-28
Cómo citar
Leiva Bianchi, M., & Araneda, A. (2016). Prevalencia y sintomatología del estrés post traumático en personas que experimentan un terremoto y un tsunami. Salud & Sociedad, 4(2), 146-155. https://doi.org/10.22199/S07187475.2013.0002.00003
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