Análisis exploratorio de modelos de ecuaciones estructurales sobre la escala de resiliencia de Connor y Davidson (CD-RISC) en Chile y España


  • Fernando Patricio Ponce Cisternas Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.


Palabras clave:

Resiliencia, CD-Risc, Estructura factorial, Resilience, factorial structure,


Introducción: La resiliencia es el proceso de negociación, gestión y adaptación a las fuentes significativas de estrés o trauma. La CD-RISC es uno de los instrumentos para la evaluación de la resiliencia más utilizados, con diversos estudios sobre sus propiedades psicométricas en una gran variedad de países. Pese a ello, aun no existe consenso acerca de la estructura interna de la escala. Objetivo: modelar simultáneamente la comunalidad y las especificidades presentes en la escala, a fin de alcanzar una visión completa de la estructura dimensional de la CD-RISC en muestras distintas. Método: analizar las respuestas a la CD-RISC en muestras independientes originarias de Chile (n=376) y España (n=300), a fin de comprobar la estabilidad y solidez del modelo sobre muestras demográficamente similares pero pertenecientes a dos países distintos. Resultados: la CD-RISC en su totalidad es fuertemente unidimensional. El factor general fue estable entre ambas muestras, y explicó la mayor parte de la varianza fiable de los ítems. Después de parcializar el efecto de la dimensión general, las facetas no contribuyeron apenas a la medida, y fueron métricamente inestables entre ambas muestras. La excepción fue la faceta Espiritualidad, que resultó el único factor específico estable en ambas muestras. No obstante, su pobre definición en la CD-RISC (sólo dos ítems) impide llegar a conclusiones sobre la naturaleza substantiva del factor espiritualidad. Conclusiones: Las dimensiones de resiliencia no son demostrables desde un punto de vista psicométrico, por lo que tiene poco o ningún sentido utilizar las subescalas en forma de puntuaciones específicas, en cuanto que empíricamente no se diferencian entre sí.


Introduction: Resilience has to do with dealing, negotiating and adapting to significant sources of stress or trauma. CD-RISC is one of the most common tools around the world to assess resilience, with a plethora of studies about their psychometric properties. Yet, there is no agreement regarding the internal structure of this scale. Objective: To apply simultaneously in two different samples the commonality and features of the CD-RISC in order to have a general vision of the dimensional structure of this scale by assessing its stability and solidity. Method: Answers to the CD-RISC from two different samples (Chile, n=376; Spain, n=300) were analyzed. Results: The CD-RISC is a strong one-dimensional scale. The general factor proved to be stable in both samples. That explains a reliable variance in all items. After being partial about the effect of the general dimension, the facets showed a different reality. They were metrically unstable in both samples. The Spiritual Facet was an exception, being the only stable specific factor in both samples. However, the poor definition of the spiritual factor (only two items) in the CD-RISC is not enough to reach conclusions about its substantive nature. Conclusions: From a psychometrical point of view, dimensions of resilience cannot be demonstrated. This means using sub-scales to find specific punctuations is pointless because they are empirically similar.


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Cómo citar

Ponce Cisternas, F. P. (2016). Análisis exploratorio de modelos de ecuaciones estructurales sobre la escala de resiliencia de Connor y Davidson (CD-RISC) en Chile y España. Salud & Sociedad, 6(3), 238-247.