Ingreso familiar y variables psicológicas asociadas a la pobreza como predictores de la calidad de la representación del apego en niños preescolares en Chile



Palabras clave:

Ingreso familiar, depresión, estrés, representación del apego, pobreza, Household income, depression, stress, attachment representation, poverty,


El objetivo de este estudio es proponer un modelo predictor que permita identificar la vía por la cual el ingreso puede afectar la calidad de las representaciones de apego infantil a través de su efecto en variables psicológicas en los padres. La muestra está compuesta por 42 familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo, medio y alto. Se evaluó el ingreso familiar mensual por persona, el nivel de preocupación financiera, el nivel de depresión y estrés de los padres, y la calidad de la representación del apego en los hijos mayores de cada familia. Para analizar la relación entre las variables se realizaron regresiones lineales simples y múltiples. Los resultados señalan que el ingreso predice la calidad del apego infantil a través del nivel de preocupación financiera y de depresión de la madre, afectando el nivel de estrés de ésta. Estos hallazgos son discutidos desde la teoría del apego y la literatura que estudia el efecto de la pobreza en el desarrollo infantil.The aim of this study is to propose a predictive model to identify the means by which income can affect the quality of infant attachment representations through its effect on parental psychological variables. The sample consists of 42 families of low socioeconomic status, medium and high. We evaluated the monthly family income per person, the levelof financial worry, the level of depression and stress of parents, and the quality of the representation of attachment in first born children of each family. To explore the relationship between variables simple and multiple linear regressions was performed. The results show that the income predicts the quality of infant attachment through the mother's financial worries and level of depression affecting her level of stress. These findings are discussed from attachment theory and the literature on the effect of poverty on child development.

Biografía del autor/a

Andrés Fresno Rodríguez, Universidad de Talca.

Facultad de Psicología.

Rosario Spencer Contreras, Universidad de Talca.

Facultad de Psicología.

Marcelo Leiva Bianchi, Universidad de Talca.

Facultad de Psicología.

Ismael Gallardo Cuadra, Universidad de Talca.

Facultad de Psicología.


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Cómo citar

Fresno Rodríguez, A., Spencer Contreras, R., Leiva Bianchi, M., & Gallardo Cuadra, I. (2016). Ingreso familiar y variables psicológicas asociadas a la pobreza como predictores de la calidad de la representación del apego en niños preescolares en Chile. Salud & Sociedad, 2(2), 176-192.




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