Percepción de enfermedad y riesgo en obesidad: revisión sistemática



Palabras clave:

Percepción de riesgo, Percepción de enfermedad, Creencias de enfermedad, Obesidad


ANTECEDENTES: La obesidad se ha descrito como una enfermedad crónica, multifactorial y evolutiva que pone en riesgo la vida de las personas. OBJETIVO:  El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de literatura sobre la percepción de la enfermedad y el riesgo de la obesidad entre enero de 2004 y enero de 2018. MÉTODO:  Buscamos en las bases de datos Lilacs, SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO y Web of Science, estudios que investigan la percepción de la enfermedad y el riesgo de obesidad basado en teorías conductuales y sociales que ayudan a entender por qué los adultos se involucran en conductas de riesgo. RESULTADOS: A partir de 577 referencias, siete estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Identificamos que los individuos obesos tienen dificultad para entender su enfermedad como una crónica que requiere esfuerzos continuos para controlarlo. La evaluación de la percepción del riesgo de obesidad no promocionó las acciones preventivas individuales de la enfermedad ni la adopción de comportamientos adecuados para mejorar el estado de salud.  CONCLUSIÓN:  La percepción de riesgos es una construcción que ayuda a entender la obesidad y puede subsidiar las prácticas de intervención de cambio de comportamiento en los pacientes.


Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. Em J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11- 39). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50, 179-211.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-258.

Blixen, C. E., Singh, A., & Thacker, H. (2006). Values and beliefs about obesity and weight reduction among African American and Caucasian women. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17(3), 290-297.

Bonsaksen, T., Fagermoen, M. S., & Lerdal, A. (2015). Factors associated with self-esteem in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional study. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 20(4), 431-442.

Bonsaksen, T., Lerdal, A., & Fagermoen, M. S. (2012). Factors associated with self-efficacy in persons with chronic illness. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(4), 333-339.

Bonsaksen, T., Lerdal, A., & Fagermoen, M. S. (2015). Trajectories of illness perceptions in persons with chronic illness: An explorative longitudinal study. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(7), 942-953.

Broadbent, E., Petrie, K.J., Main, J., & Weinman, J. (2006). The brief illness perception questionnaire. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 631–637.

Cameron, L., & Leventhal, H. (2003) Self-regulation, health, and illness: An overview. In L. Cameron & H. Leventhal (Eds.) The Self-regulation of Health and Illness Behaviour, pp. 1-13.

Crouch, M., & Leventhal, H. (1997). Are there differences in perceptions of illness across the lifespan? In K. J. Petrie, & J. Weinman (Eds.). Perceptions of Health and Illness: Current Research and Applications, (pp. 77-102). Amsterdam.

Diclemente, C. C., Schlundt, B. S., & Gemmell, L. (2004). Readiness and stages of change in addiction treatment. American Journal on Addictions, 13(2), 103-119.

Falba, T. A., & Busch, S. H. (2005). Survival expectations of the obese: Is excess mortality reflected in perceptions? Obesity Research, 13(4), 754-761.

Figueiras, M.J., & Weinman, J. (2003) Do similar patient and spouse perceptions of myocardial infarction predict recovery? Psychology and Health, 18(2), 201-216.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

French, D. P., Marteau, T. M., Senior, V., & Weinman, J. (2000). Perceptions of multiple risk factors for heart attacks. Psychological Reports, 87(2), 681-687.

Furze, G., Roebuck, A., Bull, P., Lewin, R. J., & Thompson, D. R. (2002). A comparison of the illness beliefs of people with angina and their peers: a questionnaire study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 2, 4.

Hilbert, A., Dierk, J. M., Conradt, M., Schlumberger, P., Hinney, A., Hebebrand, J., & Rief, W. (2009). Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions. Psychology Health, 24(7), 749-761.

Holmen, J., Midthjell, K., Krüger, O., Langhammer, A., Holmen, T.L., Bratberg, G.L., & Lund-Larsen, P. G. (2003). The Nord-Trondelag health study 1995–1997 (HUNT-2): Objectives, contents, methods, and participation. Norsk Epidemiologi, 13, 19–32.

Johnson, P., Fallon, E. A., Harris, B. S., & Burton, B. (2013). Body satisfaction is associated with Transtheoretical Model constructs for physical activity behavior change. Body Image, 10(2), 163-174. 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.12.002

Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M. M., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J. O. (2006). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9(5), 291-301.

Jumean, M. F., Korenfeld, Y., Somers, V. K., Vickers, K. S., Thomas, R. J., & Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2012). Impact of diagnosing metabolic syndrome on risk perception. American Journal Health Behavior, 36(4), 522-532.

Juszczyk, D., Gillison, F. B., & Dean, S. (2014). Can media images of obese people undermine health messages? An experimental study of visual representation and risk perception. European Journal of Public Health, 24(6), 930-935.

Kaptein, A. A., Van Korlaar, I. M., Cameron, L. D., Vossen, C. Y., Van der Meer, F. J., & Rosendaal, F. R. (2007). Using the common-sense model to predict risk perception and disease-related worry in individuals at increased risk for venous thrombosis. Health Psychology, 26(6), 807-812.

Lerdal, A., Andenaes, R., Bjornsborg, E., Bonsaksen, T., Borge, L., Christiansen, B., & Fagermoen, M. S. (2011). Personal factors associated with health-related quality of life in persons with morbid obesity on treatment waiting lists in Norway. Quality of Life Research, 20(8), 1187-1196.

Leventhal, H., Brissete, I., & Leventhal, E. (2003). The common-sense model of self-regulation of health and illness. In L. Cameron, & H. Leventhal (Eds.), The self-regulation of health and behaviour, (pp.42-65). London: Routledge.

Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D., & Steele, D. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In Baum, A., Singer, J. (Eds.). Handbook of psychology and health (221–252). Erlbaum: New York.

Mastellos, N., Gunn, L. H., Felix, L. M., Car, J., & Majeed, A. (2014). Transtheoretical model stages of change for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD008066.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Group, P. (2009). Reprint-preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Physical Therapy, 89(9), 873-880.

Noria, S. F., & Grantcharov, T. (2013). Biological effects of bariatric surgery on obesity-related comorbidities. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 56(1), 47-57.

Ogden, J., & Sidhu, S. (2006). Adherence, behavior change, and visualization: a qualitative study of the experiences of taking an obesity medication. Journal Psychosomatic Research, 61(4), 545-552. 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.04.017

Okop, K. J., Mukumbang, F. C., Mathole, T., Levitt, N. & Puoane, T. (2016). Perceptions of body size, obesity threat and the willingness to lose weight among black South African adults: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 16 (365).

Park, S., Cochrane, B. B., Koh, S. B., & Chung, C. (2011). Comparison of breast cancer risk estimations, risk perception, and screening behaviors in obese rural Korean women. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38(6), E394-401.

Parschau, L., Barz, M., Richert, J., Knoll, N., Lippke, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Physical activity among adults with obesity: testing the Health Action Process Approach. Rehabilitation Psychology, 59(1), 42-49.

Peters, E., Slovic, P., Hibbard, J. H., & Tusler, M. (2006). Why worry? Worry, risk perceptions, and willingness to act to reduce medical errors. Health Psychology, 25(2), 144-152.

Prasad, C., Batsis, J. A., Lopez-Jimenez, F., Clark, M. M., Somers, V. K., Sarr, M. G., & Collazo-Clavell, M. L. (2014). Risk perception of obesity and bariatric surgery in patients seeking treatment for obesity. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 21(6), 692-703.

Prochaska J.O. (1979). Systems of psychotherapy: a transtheoretical analysis. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

Prochaska J. O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1982). Trans-theoretical therapy - toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19(3), 276-288.

Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W.F. (1997). The Transtheoretical Model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38-48.

Prochaska, J. O., Butterworth, S., Redding, C. A., Burden, V., Perrin, N., Leo, M., & Prochaska, J. M. (2008). Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI's with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Preventive Medicine, 46(3), 226-231.

Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behavior. American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.

Radtke, T., Kaklamanou, D., Scholz, U., Hornung, R., & Armitage, C. J. (2014). Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour? Appetite, 76, 36-43.

Rivis A, Sheeran P, Armitage CJ (2006). Augmenting the theory of planned behaviour with the prototype/willingness model: predictive validity of actor versus abstainer prototypes for adolescents’ health-protective and healthrisk intentions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11(Pt 3),483–500.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio (pp. 35–37). Windsor, UK: Nfer-Nelson.

Siegrist, M., & Cvetkovich, G. (2000). Perception of hazards: the role of social trust and knowledge. Risk Analysis, 20(5), 713-719.

Simpson, J., Lekwuwa, G., & Crawford, T. (2013). Illness beliefs and psychological outcome in people with Parkinsons disease. Chronic Illness, 9, 165–176.

Smith JA, & Osborn M. (2003). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In J.A. Smith (Ed). Qualitative psychology. Sage, pp. 51– 80.

Sjöberg, L. (1998). Worry and risk perception. Risk Analysis, 18(1), 85-93.

Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236(4799), 280-285.

Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2004). Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis, 24(2), 311-322.

Teede, H. J., Lombard, C., & Deeks, A. A. (2010). Obesity, metabolic complications and the menopause: an opportunity for prevention. Climacteric, 13(3), 203-209.

Wee, C. C., Davis, R. B., & Phillips, R. S. (2005). Stage of readiness to control weight and adopt weight control behaviors in primary care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(5), 410-415.

Wilson P.W., D’Agostino R.B., Levy D., Belanger A.M., Silbershatz H., & Kannel, WB. (1998). Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation, 97, 1837–1847.

Winter, J., & Wuppermann, A. (2014). Do they know what is at risk? Health risk perception among the obese. Health Economy, 23(5), 564-585.

Yamada-Goto, N., Katsuura G., & Nakao K. (2013). A Novel approach to obesity from mental Function. Journal of Obesity & Weigth Loss Therapy, 3(167).



Cómo citar

Schakarowski, F. B., Corá Mottin , C., & Kern De Castro , E. . (2020). Percepción de enfermedad y riesgo en obesidad: revisión sistemática. Salud & Sociedad, 11, e3737.